Do Dogs Need Vitamins And Probiotics?


Proper nutrition is one of the most important factors for keeping dogs healthy and happy. According to the Association for Pet Obesity Prevention, over 50% of dogs in the United States are overweight or obese. This puts them at higher risk for diseases like diabetes, heart disease, arthritis and cancer. While commercial dog foods try to provide balanced nutrition, dogs may still need supplemental vitamins and probiotics depending on their age, breed, activity level and specific health conditions. This article will explore if vitamins and probiotics are necessary additions to a dog’s diet, signs they may be needed, choosing quality supplements and proper dosing.

Background on Dog Nutrition

Dogs require balanced nutrition to stay healthy. Their dietary requirements include protein, fat, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water While the percentage of each nutrient needed varies by dog age, breed, and activity level, in general adult dogs require about 18-25% protein, 5-15% fat, and 45-60% carbohydrates in their diet.

Vitamins and probiotics are supplements that can provide additional health benefits for dogs. Vitamins help regulate bodily processes and probiotics support digestive and immune system health. While they are not essential in the same way as macro-nutrients, vitamins and probiotics may help dogs better absorb nutrients, maintain a healthy gut, and prevent deficiencies.

Do Dogs Need Vitamins?

Most dogs receive adequate amounts of vitamins from a complete and balanced commercial diet that meets AAFCO nutrient guidelines ( The vitamins dogs need the most are:

  • Vitamin A – important for vision, bone growth, reproduction, and immune function
  • Vitamin D – regulates calcium and phosphorus absorption
  • Vitamin E – antioxidant that protects cells from damage
  • Thiamine (Vitamin B1) – converts food into energy
  • Riboflavin (Vitamin B2) – helps body growth and red blood cell production
  • Niacin (Vitamin B3) – metabolizes fats, proteins, and carbohydrates
  • Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5) – involved in energy metabolism
  • Pyridoxine (Vitamin B6) – supports immune function and enzyme reactions
  • Folic Acid – essential for cell growth and reproduction
  • Cobalamin (Vitamin B12) – maintains nerve cells and red blood cells

While vitamin supplements may provide benefits in some cases, they also carry risks. Too much preformed Vitamin A can cause bone deformities in growing puppies and liver damage in older dogs. Fat-soluble vitamins like A, D, E can build up to toxic levels over time. Vitamin B6 supplementation has been linked to nerve damage in dogs ( Most veterinarians only recommend supplements tailored to a dog’s specific needs based on lifestyle, health status, diet, and lab testing.

Do Dogs Need Probiotics?

Probiotics are healthy bacteria and yeast that can provide many benefits when supplied to dogs in adequate amounts. Some of the main health benefits of probiotics for dogs include:

– Improving digestive health and nutrient absorption – Probiotics like Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus can help restore normal gut flora and balance in dogs, preventing diarrhea and enhancing their ability to digest and absorb nutrients from their food (Wuffes Digestive Probiotics for Dogs).

– Boosting the immune system – Probiotics may help stimulate immune cells and antibodies in the gut, providing immune support and reducing a dog’s susceptibility to pathogens, allergens, and toxins (Wuffes Probioticos digestivos para perros).

– Promoting overall health – By improving gut and immune function, probiotics can help optimize a dog’s health and may aid conditions like inflammatory bowel disease. However, more research is needed on various strains and their efficacy.

Some veterinarians caution that not all dogs need regular probiotic supplements, especially if their diet and digestive system are otherwise healthy. Overuse of probiotics could lead to side effects like gas or bloating. It’s best to discuss your dog’s needs with your vet before starting supplements. When chosen wisely and used as directed, quality probiotic supplements can provide key gut and immune support.

Signs Your Dog May Need Supplements

There are some telltale signs your dog may need additional vitamins or probiotics. These include:

Changes in appetite. A lack of appetite or increased appetite could signal a deficiency in key nutrients like vitamin B12 or iron (Signs and Symptoms of Dog Nutritional Deficiencies). Consulting your vet can help determine if supplementation may help.

a dog turning away from food indicating a poor appetite

Decreased energy levels. If your once active dog seems sluggish or lethargic, it could be a sign of a deficiency in vitamins, minerals or probiotics. Carbohydrates provide dogs energy, so a lack of vitamins that help metabolize carbs like B vitamins may result in low energy (Is Your Dog Nutrient Deficient?).

Dull coat and shedding fur. A healthy, shiny coat requires nutrients like vitamin A, zinc and fatty acids. Dry, flaky skin or excessive shedding can indicate a deficiency (5 Obvious Signs Indicating That Your Pet Needs Supplements).

Changes in behavior or mood. Sudden aggression, anxiety, or hyperactivity may be tied to nutritional deficiencies, especially of fatty acids and B vitamins that impact neurological function.

Underlying health conditions. Dogs with chronic issues like digestive disorders, injuries, or immune dysfunction may have increased nutritional needs that a standard diet doesn’t provide.

Choosing Quality Supplements

When selecting supplements for your dog, it’s important to choose high-quality products from reputable manufacturers. Unlike human supplements, pet supplements are not regulated by the FDA, so there is potential for variability in safety and efficacy.

Look for supplements that have a seal from an independent organization like NASC (National Animal Supplement Council), which requires testing for purity and potency. Additionally, supplements made in the USA tend to have more oversight.

Research the company and check for any recalls or warnings. Only purchase from manufacturers with a good track record. Reviews from other pet owners can help identify quality products.

Avoid supplements with artificial colors, flavors, or preservatives. Look for all natural ingredients. Supplements should also have an expiration date on the label.

Talk to your veterinarian for dosage recommendations based on your dog’s size, age, and health status. Only give supplements from reputable companies that provide a nutritional analysis.

With a little bit of research, you can find high-quality supplements to complement your dog’s diet and support their health. But always consult your vet before starting any new supplement.

Dosage and Administration

The dosage for vitamins and probiotics can vary based on the specific supplement, your dog’s size and age, and their individual needs. Some general guidelines include:

For vitamins:
a dog receiving vitamin supplements

  • Adult dogs: 1 chewable per 20-50 lbs body weight per day (Multivitamin for Dogs)
  • Puppies: 1 chewable per 10-20 lbs body weight per day

For probiotics:

  • 1 billion-5 billion CFUs per 10 lbs body weight per day is typically recommended
  • a person giving probiotic supplement to a dog

Always follow label instructions and consult your vet, especially for puppies or dogs with health conditions. It’s best to give supplements with food to aid absorption and prevent gastrointestinal upset. Mix powdered supplements into wet food or create “pill pockets” by hiding pills in peanut butter or cheese for easy administration.

Start with smaller doses and monitor your dog’s tolerance, gradually increasing to the full recommended dosage over a week or two if needed. Stick to a consistent schedule, such as morning and evening feedings.

Lifestyle and Diet Considerations

A dog’s overall lifestyle and diet are very important when it comes to determining if supplements are needed. Diet plays a huge role in a dog’s health and certain lifestyle factors can affect their dietary needs.

For puppies and pregnant/nursing dogs, it’s especially important they get proper nutrition as they have increased caloric needs during this rapid growth phase (Found Animals). Puppy diets should be higher in calories, protein, vitamins, and minerals. Pregnant and nursing dogs also require increased nutrients for their developing puppies.

As dogs reach their senior years, their metabolism slows down and caloric needs decrease. However, protein, vitamin, and mineral needs remain high. Seniors may benefit from specially formulated food or supplements that provide joint support and help maintain cognitive function (Dogs Naturally Magazine).

In addition to diet, exercise and activity levels influence a dog’s health. More active dogs require higher calorie diets. Overweight dogs can benefit from portion control, scheduled feedings, and increased exercise. Consulting with your vet can help determine ideal calorie intake based on your dog’s lifestyle (ASPCA).

Talking to Your Vet

Before starting your dog on any new vitamins or supplements, it’s important to discuss it with your veterinarian. Here are some key things to cover during that conversation:

Provide an overview of your dog’s health history, any medical conditions they have, and details on their current diet and lifestyle. This gives your vet context on why you feel supplements may be needed.

Ask your vet for their opinion on whether supplements make sense for your specific dog. They can help assess if there are any nutrient gaps or health issues that may benefit from supplementation.

Discuss which specific vitamins, minerals, or probiotics you are considering and why. Your vet can provide insight on appropriate dosing, safety considerations, and which options are higher quality or more effective.

someone discussing dog supplements with a veterinarian

Inquire about any tests or monitoring recommended while starting a new supplement. Your vet may want to check bloodwork periodically to ensure the supplement is not causing any issues.

Establish a plan for follow-up and reporting. Be sure to update your vet on whether you notice improvements after starting supplements so they can advise if adjustments are needed.

Maintaining open communication with your veterinarian is key when exploring supplements for your dog. Their guidance can help you make informed choices to support your dog’s health. (Source:—selecting-supplements-for-your-pet)

The Bottom Line

In summary, while a healthy, balanced diet is ideal for meeting your dog’s nutritional needs, supplements can provide an added boost in certain situations. Vitamins and probiotics may benefit dogs with digestive issues, allergies, or nutrient deficiencies. However, they aren’t necessary for every dog.

Look for signs of deficiency like dull coat, shedding, diarrhea, or skin irritation as cues your dog may need more nutritional support. Select high-quality supplements made specifically for dogs and consult your vet on proper dosage. Give supplements consistently and monitor your dog’s health improvements. Focus on adjusting diet, exercise, and lifestyle factors before turning to supplements long-term.

The bottom line is to choose supplements wisely, use sparingly if needed, and prioritize diet quality, activity levels, and veterinary care for optimal canine health.

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