Do Dogs Remember Bad Things That Happened To Them?

We’ve all experienced occasions when we did something bad as a child and got in trouble for it. Most of us remember those experiences clearly. But what about our canine companions? Do dogs have the ability to remember traumatic or upsetting events that happened to them? Can they recall experiences from years ago or hold on to bad memories?

Understanding how dogs’ memories work can provide insight into their abilities and emotional lives. It can also help us better train and care for our furry friends. While research on canine cognition is still ongoing, studies suggest dogs do form durable memories of significant life events. However, their memories may work differently than our own.

Dog Memory Capabilities

Dogs have excellent associative memory, meaning they remember connections between things very well. This is why dogs can learn commands, recognize objects, and remember people and other dogs (source).

However, dogs have a short working memory span of about 2 minutes (source). This means they can struggle to remember events that just happened. For example, if a dog gets scolded, they may forget why they were scolded just 2 minutes later.

While a dog’s working memory is limited, their long-term memory is excellent. Dogs can remember experiences, people, places, commands, scents, and routines for months or even years after learning them (source). So even if a dog can’t remember what exactly happened 2 minutes ago, they can still retain memories long-term.

Do Dogs Remember Traumatic Events?

Studies show that dogs do have the capability to remember negative experiences. Their memory works similarly to humans – the strength of the memory depends on the intensity of the event. Highly traumatic events will likely be remembered by dogs for a long time.

Researchers at the University of California found that dogs remembered a negative experience for at least 4 hours. In the study, dogs were briefly shocked while learning a new skill. When brought back after 4 hours to redo the skill training, the dogs showed signs of anticipating the shock, indicating they remembered the negative association.

Other studies, such as one completed at Hokkaido University in Japan, demonstrated that dogs could remember a negative experience for at least 2 months. The researchers subjected dogs to short electric shocks while showing them various objects. When shown the objects again 2 months later, the dogs still exhibited fearful and stressed reactions.

While the precise length of time a dog will remember a bad event is unknown, evidence clearly shows dogs can form long-term memories of highly traumatic or frightening experiences. Physical and emotional abuse can impart lasting damage on a dog.

Dog Body Language After Trauma

Dogs that have experienced a traumatic event may continue to show signs of fear, anxiety or aggression long after the event occurred. Some common body language cues that indicate a dog is still affected include:

– Cowering or crouching close to the ground when approached or when in unfamiliar environments

– Flattened ears against the head

– Tucked tail tight against the hind legs

– Avoiding eye contact by turning their head away

– Lip licking or yawning repeatedly when not tired

– Pacing or inability to settle in one spot

– Growling, snarling or snapping when approached or petted

– Trembling or shaking

Dogs that react this way are still fearful and their anxiety has not diminished over time. Their body language reveals they are on high alert and ready to defend themselves. This lingering trauma response will require patience, positive reinforcement training and potentially medication or behavioral therapy from a veterinarian to overcome.

Helping Dogs Overcome Bad Memories

There are effective techniques pet owners can use to help dogs overcome fearful memories and experiences. Two common methods are desensitization and counterconditioning.

Desensitization involves gradually exposing the dog to whatever triggers their fearful reaction, starting at very low intensities. For example, if a dog is afraid of loud noises, you would start by exposing them to quiet noises like rustling paper, and over many sessions slowly increase the volume as the dog remains calm and relaxed. This allows the dog to learn the trigger is not dangerous. According to PetMD, desensitization should be done under the guidance of a professional dog trainer or veterinary behaviorist.1

Counterconditioning means pairing the fearful trigger with something the dog enjoys, like treats or play. This creates a positive association to replace the negative reaction. For example, when exposing a noise-phobic dog to sounds, give treats each time the sound occurs. With repetition, the dog associates the noise with good things happening. Zoetis recommends combining counterconditioning with desensitization for best results.2

Creating Positive Experiences

After experiencing a traumatic event, it’s important to focus on rebuilding your dog’s confidence by creating plenty of positive new memories. Fun activities like playtime, exercise, and training are great ways to strengthen your bond.

Dedicate time for daily play sessions with your dog using their favorite toys. Play allows dogs to release pent-up energy and stress. It also releases endorphins in their brain which can improve their mood. Try playing fetch, tug-of-war or hide-and-seek. You can also use puzzle toys or take your dog to a dog park to play with other canines.

Regular exercise is vital for a dog’s physical and mental health. Go for walks, hikes, or runs together. Swimming is another great vigorous activity for dogs. Not only does exercise stimulate their body and mind, it allows quality bonding time with you.

Training sessions are an excellent way to rebuild your dog’s confidence after a traumatic experience. Use positive reinforcement techniques with treats and praise to teach new commands and tricks. When your dog masters a new skill, it gives them a sense of accomplishment which boosts their self-esteem. Always keep training sessions fun and rewarding.

The key is consistently having quality interactions through play, exercise and training. These positive shared experiences release feel-good hormones in both you and your dog, bringing you closer together. Over time, new powerful memories can overwrite bad ones from the past.

When to Seek Professional Help

In some cases, it may be necessary to seek professional help from an animal behaviorist or certified dog trainer when working with a traumatized dog. Signs that your dog may need professional support include excessive fear, anxiety, or aggression that persists despite your efforts to help them, drastic changes in their behavior or emotional state, harming themselves or others, or an inability to function normally in day-to-day life.

A professional dog trainer or animal behaviorist has the skills and experience to properly assess your dog’s unique needs and create a customized training and treatment plan. They can identify the root causes of your dog’s trauma responses and apply targeted techniques like desensitization, counterconditioning, confidence building, and medication if needed. Working one-on-one with an expert can help facilitate your dog’s recovery and equip you with the tools to manage any lasting effects of trauma.

It’s important to find a qualified professional who understands animal behavior and uses force-free, positive reinforcement-based methods. Certification from organizations like the Certification Council for Professional Dog Trainers can help identify reputable experts. With compassionate support from professionals and owners, dogs can overcome trauma and thrive.

Preventing Traumatic Events

There are several ways to help prevent dogs from experiencing traumatic events that can lead to lasting negative memories and anxiety. Proper socialization and training from an early age are key.

Socializing puppies and dogs to new people, animals, places, sights, sounds, and experiences helps build confidence and resilience. Gradually exposing dogs to novel things in a positive, controlled way prevents fear and trauma from developing. Reward calm, relaxed behavior in new situations.

Additionally, investing in professional training classes or working one-on-one with an experienced trainer is highly beneficial. This allows you to properly socialize your dog while also teaching essential obedience skills. A well-trained dog is more secure, confident, and less likely to find everyday experiences traumatizing.

Other tips include keeping your home and yard secure so your dog can’t escape and get lost or injured. Supervise your dog in new environments and with new dogs to avoid scary interactions. Use positive reinforcement to encourage wanted behaviors and distract/redirect from unwanted behaviors.

While you can’t prevent all frightening events from happening, proper care, training, and socialization from puppyhood onward sets dogs up for success and resilience when faced with challenges.

The Takeaway

Dogs have excellent long-term memories and can remember traumatic events that happened years ago. While they may not dwell on the past like humans do, triggers can cause dogs to react as if reliving a bad memory. Signs your dog is remembering trauma include shaking, hiding, aggression, and loss of training. With patience, time, and counterconditioning using treats and praise, you can help your dog overcome bad memories. Preventing future trauma by socializing dogs and using positive training methods creates the best environment for your pet. The past doesn’t have to define your dog’s future if you know how to recognize symptoms and provide the care and training needed to move forward.


Landsberg, G, Hunthausen, W, Ackerman, L. 2013. Behavior Problems of the Dog and Cat. 3rd ed. Edinburgh: Saunders.

Overall, K. 2013. Manual of Clinical Behavioral Medicine for Dogs and Cats. St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Horwitz, Debra & Mills, Daniel. 2009. BSAVA Manual of Canine and Feline Behavioural Medicine. Quedgeley: British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

Lindsay, Steve R. 2001. Handbook of Applied Dog Behavior and Training, Vol. 2: Etiology and Assessment of Behavior Problems. Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press.

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